Females get frightened when they see bleeding occurring after menopause. Menopause usually sets in after 40 years of age. One year of complete absence of menses is usually considered as established menopause.
The female is also relaxed as she is relieved of the menopausal symptoms. But sometimes it happens that bleeding from vagina takes place after menopause. This is known as post menopausal bleeding.
Do not panic in such situations. Read here to find out the reasons and steps required to take if you experience post menopausal bleeding. There are various causes of post menopausal bleeding. Any trauma to the vulva can result in bleeding in the genitals. Due to close proximity of vulva and vagina, the female can mistake this bleeding as from bleeding from vagina.
Foreign body present in the vagina can give rise to bleeding. Instruments such as ring pessary are kept in the vagina in cases of prolapse of uterus or vagina. After many years, this instrument can precipitate bleeding.
Inflammation of the vagina which is common in old age due to oestrogen deficiency after menopause is also responsible for some bleeding. Erosion of the cervix, polyps of the cervix, and inflammation of the cervix are diseases of the cervix that can give rise to bleeding.
If there is thickening of lining of uterus from any cause, it may cause bleeding from vagina. Other causes are hypertension, bleeding disorders. Bleeding from the rectum due to fissures or haemorrhoids can also be mistaken for bleeding from the vagina. The most important cause of vaginal bleeding in old age which is quite common is cancer. 30 to 50 % of post menopausal bleeding is due to malignancy of any part of the female genital tract.
Malignant lesions can occur over the vulva. Vaginal tumour can be the cause of bleeding from vagina. Cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers in females. Cancer of the uterus, endometrium or ovary can result in bleeding from vagina.
In some cases a woman does not stop menstruating even after the age of 50. Bleeding sometimes occur after 6 months of amenorrhoea in menopause. All such cases need to be thoroughly investigated. So consult your gynaecologist immediately.