Cystitis is inflammation (swelling, redness and pain) of urinary bladder. It is more common in women. People of all ages are susceptible to it, but it is more common in those aged 40 to 60 yrs. of age.
Symptoms of Cystitis
The symptoms of cystitis are usually local, confined to those arising from urinary tract. However, sometimes there can be systemic symptoms like weakness, fever of low grade, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. The following are some of the symptoms that can occur in cystitis.
Note that these symptoms can occur in a variety of other conditions (as listed under each symptom), so only when they occur as a constellation of symptoms is there greater likelihood of cystitis, which needs to be confirmed with investigations.
Urgency of Urination
There can be strong and persistent urgency to urinate. Other causes of urgency in urination include use of alcohol, anxiety, caffeine, diabetes, pregnancy, overactive bladder, stroke or other neurologic disorders, bladder cancer
(uncommon), infection or enlargement of prostate (in men), use of diuretic drugs, radiotherapy to pelvis (as in treatment of certain cancers), and growths or tumours in pelvis.
Increased Frequency of Urination (Polyuria)
There can be increased frequency of urination. Some of the other causes of increased frequency of urination are similar to those that cause urgency of urination as given above, the common causes being diabetes, pregnancy, diuretics, prostate enlargement (in men), stroke or any other neurologic disorder, and overactive bladder.
Less common causes are bladder cancer and radiotherapy to pelvis. This symptom needs to be taken more seriously when accompanied by other symptoms like fever, back pain, cloudy or bloody urine, loss of appetite etc.
Discomfort or Pain during Urination (Dysuria)
Cystitis can cause discomfort or pain during urination. Other causes of dysuria include prostatitis (in men), sexually transmitted diseases
Local irritation or trauma due to catheter or sexual intercourse, enlarged prostate (in men), genital lesions, diabetes, and some cancers such as those of bladder and prostate.
Need for Urinating at Night (Nocturia)
This is the frequent need to wake up at night to pass urine. This can also be physiological as when you drink too much fluid before retiring to bed, during pregnancy and in the elderly. Some of the more serious causes include renal failure, heart failure, uterine fibroids, and prostate cancer.
Passage of Blood in Urine (Hematuria)
When you pass urine that’s red in colour, it is usually due to presence of red blood cells in urine. Sometimes hematuria is microscopic, detectable only by microscopic examination of urine, and is not visible to naked eye.
This symptom needs to be taken seriously because it could be a pointer to a serious underlying condition like kidney stone or tumour in urinary tract. Other causes of hematuria include trauma to kidney, inflammation or infection of prostate (in men), strenuous exercise, and intake of certain drugs like quinine, sulfonamides, rifampin and phenytoin.
Passage of Cloudy Urine
This symptom in association with other symptoms listed above points to cystitis. Most of the other causes of cloudy urine are harmless. It could be due to vaginal discharge, kidney infection, kidney stones, passage of more protein in urine (proteinuria) due to a variety of causes, pregnancy, and inflammation of prostate (in men).
Pain above the Pubic Area (Suprapubic Pain)
There can be a feeling of pressure and even pain and tenderness in the region of the bladder and pelvis. These symptoms increase with the filling up of bladder and subside when the bladder is emptied by passage of urine.