Diabetes is caused by the deficiency of insulin, a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas. The work of the insulin is to convert the glucose that is there in the blood stream to energy. This energy is required for the repairing of the different body organs, movement, growth and other major functions of the body. It is the insulin that helps the glucose that is present in the blood stream to move it to different cells of the body where this glucose is converted into energy and the different tasks of the body are performed.
There are two types of diabetes: diabetes type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is less common and this diabetes is also known as Juvenile diabetes as this diabetes affects the children and the young adults, mostly.
In the type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops producing the insulin of the body leading to the rise of the sugar level in the blood stream. The immune system of the body gets infected and harasses the pancreas which leads to the stoppage in the production of insulin. Without the production of insulin, the semi-starvation stage is reached no matter how much one intakes food. As the production of insulin stops totally, the cells cannot extract the glucose from the blood stream and convert it into energy. It leads to the degeneration of the cells.
Regular insulin injections and proper medication are the only remedy. According to many medical researches, the type 1 diabetes is in general, based on genetics and is found much more among those who reside in cold weather climates.
Type-2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes that affects around 90% of the diabetic population. This type of diabetes produces some insulin but that is either not enough for the body or the cells are reluctant and sluggish towards the insulin that is provided to them and do not use it in the proper manner. This leads to the rise in the level of blood sugar. The type-2 diabetes is also hereditary at times. This diabetes can be treated by following a proper and restrictive diet, regular exercise and medications as well.
Besides pumps, insulin testing strips and wearing of diabetic shoes can also manage the disease on a daily basis. Regular checks of the level of blood sugar in every three months, conduction of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) regularly can help in checking diabetes.