Matters of heart are complicated and not to be taken lightly ever because heart is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. Most of the heart problems stem from our lifestyle and habits. Fatty and junk food, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentary lifestyle are some of the causes behind the heart diseases.
Genetic factors also play an important role in determining your susceptibility to heart conditions.
Circulatory System Diseases
Heart diseases are also referred to as cardiovascular diseases. These diseases involve dysfunction of heart, vessels, capillaries and heart valves. The diseases include valvular heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, Rheumatic heart disease, heart failure and cardiomyopathy.
Valvular heart disease is when any or all of the heart valves do not function properly. Peripheral heart disease refers to the abnormal function of arteries that supply blood to extremeties. Arrhythmia occurs when the heart beat becomes irregular. Congenital heart disease is basically a class of heart disease that occur from the time of birth.
Rheumatic heart disease is caused by bacterial infections that might damage heart and its valves. On the other hand, heart failure is a condition where heart fails to pump the blood into the body. The last type of heart disease, cardiomyopathy is said to exist when there is degeneration or malfunction of cardiac muscles.
When the heart pumps blood, there is a certain exertion loaded on the arteries, this exertion reduces when the heart rests after a beat. This exertion is called blood pressure and ideal range of this pressure is 120/80. When the pressure breaches higher and lower ranges and goes up, it is called hypertension whereas its slide to lower points is known as hypotension.
Both of these conditions can sometimes be permanent and fatal also. Heart diseases are one of the causes of this condition.
Artery wall thickens due to accumulation of plaque and cholesterol. Atherosclerosis is a condition where the walls of artery thicken due to accumulation of plaque and cholesterol in the body. This happens when the body is not able to flush out the excessive fats from the body and they begin to build up gradually. These deposits harden the soft and flexible arteries.
In fact it is commonly seen that the person suffering from this condition may not show any symptoms for a long time. This condition may begin to develop from childhood itself, but may not show any symptoms. Obesity, intake of saturated fats, smoking, lack of sleep, obesity and menopause are known to cause Atherosclerosis. Heart attack, numbness in the limbs can also indicate existence of Atherosclerosis.
Depending on the disease there are various options open for a patient suffering from the diseases of circulatory system that range from non-invasive to deeply invasive treatments.In cases where there is no or mild damage to circulatory system, the person may be put on medicines.
Medicines for blood pressure and anxiety might be administered on such patients. Statins group of medicines have been found to effective in controlling and managing the heart conditions and its diseases.
Angioplasty involves introducing a deflated balloon into blood stream and then inflating it inside the artery to a predetermined extent, that cuts through cholesterol and plaque to clear the path for blood flow. It basically involves widening the passageway for blood.
After a session of angioplasty there is a lot of marked improvement, however it is necessary to modify the lifestyle accordingly so that furthermore sessions of this treatment are not required. The patient is on complete rest for a few days after this procedure. Aspirin with some anti-coagulant medicines are also recommended.
Surgery is required in cases of damage to the heart structure or severe dysfunction of heart and its valves. The surgery may either involve repairing the damage or replacement of the damaged part. Heart and heart valves can be replaced on condition of a matching donor heart being available.
Also, it carries the risk of rejection and infection after the replacement has been done. The surgeries for repair are also of two types i.e. bypass and open heart surgery. After surgery, there is prolonged period of rest recommended along with the loads of medicines to avoid side effects and infections.
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