During an ultrasound scan of the uterus, high frequency sound waves are passed through the uterus. These waves are then reflected back and are converted into an image which is visible on a screen. An ultrasound scan thus provides us with images of the growing fetus inside the uterus.
The images can be obtained in 2D, 3D or even in 4D format. The scan will be usually performed by your gynecologist or by a trained technician who is known as a sonographer.
The scanning procedure involves applying a gel on your abdominal and pelvic regions .A hand held probe or transducer which when moved over the gel applied areas will present you with an image of the uterus and the growing fetus inside it. The gel is applied so as to prevent any loss of signal.
If you are in a very early stage of pregnancy, then you will need to drink several glasses of water before the scan so as to make your bladder full. The full bladder will push out the uterus from the pelvic region, thus providing us with a more detailed and accurate view of the uterus during the scan.
In another method of scanning, a probe lubricated with gel is inserted into the vagina of the mother, in order to obtain images of the uterus. This method of scanning is more accurate than the former one. It is used in the very early stages of pregnancy to detect the presence of tiny embryos.
By performing an ultrasound scan, we will be able to monitor the fetal developments and its position in the uterus. The fetal heartbeat can be monitored and the chances for multiple pregnancies can also be confirmed with the help of an ultrasound scan.
Conditions like placenta previa and ectopic pregnancy can be detected by an ultrasound scan. Any fetal abnormalities like spina bifida can also be found out by performing an ultrasound scan.
If yours is a normal low risk pregnancy, then you will have around 2 to 3 ultrasound scans during your pregnancy tenure. The frequency of scans will increase if you have a high risk pregnancy or if you are carrying twins.