Androgens are basically hormones which encourage formation as well as sustention of masculine sexual characteristics. But, when cancer develops in tissues of the prostate then these androgens could aid in fuelling malignant growth. Manufacture of androgens is chiefly known to occur in the testicles as well as suprarenal glands. In males having prostate cancer the malignant tissue itself is a supplementary androgen provider.
According to a latest evaluation in the official journal of the British Association of Urological Surgeons, BJU International, novel classes of androgen-targeting medicines can spell doom for prostate cancer cells sans causing the frequently associated nasty side-effects.
An investigating team from Colorado’s NCI Comprehensive Cancer Center came to the realization that manufacture of androgens such as testosterone is reliant on an integral system wherein brain recognition of hormonal levels leads to signaling of the pea-sized hypophysis to boost or lessen manufacture. The endrocrine gland then rouses the testicles which follow suit. They further noticed that when androgen manufacture was targeted via the testicles then they were able to rupture that integral system at several locations.
It is generally observed that patients develop end stage prostate cancer. In the initial stages the carcinoma is hormone-sensitive (or HSPC), however eventually it morphs into hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Therapy for such form of prostate cancer was lacking until the recent past. Presently, such patients can avail therapy involving 5 diverse medicines such as chemo drugs (Novantrone, Jevtana, Docetaxel), advanced staging cancer vaccine therapy Sipuleucel-T and hormonal therapy abiraterone acetate (Zytiga/CB7630).
Antiandrogens such as Enzalutamide work by targeting the cells’ capability of entrapping testosterone which is present within our bodies. This androgen-receptor inhibitor is presently in the third stage of scientific trials. Irrespective of the amount of testosterone afloat, the drug and several antiandrogens are simpler to seize as compared to the androgens. Hence, bodily cells grasp the drug and are then incapable of grabbing the male sex hormone. This leads to an instantaneous plummet in testosterone.
Enzalutamide drug was used in a randomized controlled trial spanning multiple centers in different nations and involved over 1199 participants. The Enzalutamide group was found to tolerate the drug favourably with least side-effects. They also had better quality of existence and prolonged life span (5 months) as compared to the placebo group. The lengthened span of existence was noteworthy since such populace with terminal illness often dies in a span of just 3 months. The drug has been found to work effectively for prostate cancer sufferers who have undergone chemotherapy in the past.
Foraying into the scene of prostate cancer therapy is another new-fangled category of drugs dubbed as the androgen biosynthesis inhibitors.
This is the foremost drug that has received the nod from the United States Food and Drug Administration. An orally-taken, single dose per day medicine is used in conjunct with corticosteroid, Prednisone for treating males diagnosed with metastatic CRPC or metastic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Abiraterone acetate has been found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of the CYP17 enzyme complex that is necessary for androgen manufacture at every potential source like testicles, suprarenal glands and also by the carcinoma itself.
They are mushrooms which have been researched as likely potent therapies for myriad ailments. Studies suggest that several types of mushrooms have potential cancer-fighting properties.
The duo stars in the horizon that have recently grabbed the limelight are Phellinus linteus and Agaricus bisporus.
Extracts of this mushroom variety has been found to sensitize cells with later staging prostate cancer to self-destruct or induce programmed cell death (PCD) in murine forms and humans sans triggering any considerable toxic side-effects.
Physicians from Korean-based prestigious Kangwon National University have conducted studies on the antineoplastic effects of the mushroom extract. They have found the mushroom to be effectual for cancer sufferers in activating immune system by maintaining healthy levels of white blood corpuscles which tend to drop after chemotherapy. Moreover, it also assisted in lessening associated chemotherapy effects.
Lab researches conducted by scientists in Harvard Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital have deeply analyzed the precise mechanism of Phellinus linteus-interceded cell death. Mutant mice were inoculated with prostate cancer cells for evaluating the efficacy of this mushroom extract on the origin and development of such tumors. Following the injection, the murine group were then administered a jab containing Phellinus linteus in 48 hour time intervals for a period of twelve days.
Though the mushroom extract therapy failed in preventing the development of inoculated tumor but there was a dramatic attenuation in their rate of growth. Cell death was observed to occur once the caspase 3 protein present in the tumors got activated. The trial outcome indicates that the mushroom extract was capable of assuaging cancerous growth and also causing tumor degeneration by cell death induction.
Reputed surgeon F. Morishige who is part of the Linus Pauling Institute of Science & Medicine has been actively involved in studying Phellinus linteus for controlling cancer. He believes that taking vitamin C along with the mushroom extract enhances its accessibility to the immune system and yields superior outcomes that merely standalone Phellinus linteus extract.
Extract of the edible white button mushrooms have phytonutrients which help in preventing and treating cancer. A trial was conducted by investigators from California’s Beckman Research Institute for evaluating its effects as well as its key constituent, a ruminant fatty acid (CLA) on cell cultures developed from a solo cell. Agaricus bisporus was observed to inhibit size and spread of tumour in a dosage-dependent way and brought about programmed cell death within three days of offering mushroom extract therapy to mutant mice.
Extract from the bark of the huge evergreen Red Stinkwood tree (Prunus Africana) is presently being deployed in European countries and the United States for treating prostate enlargement (or BPH).
During a latest trial carried out by scientists from the University of Missouri Biochemistry research center ethanolic Pygeum africanum extracts (thirty percent) were found to restrain growth of prostate tumor cells in rodent models than those given casein. Thus, it has been proven to don a crucial part in regulating prostate cancer (in-vivo as well as in-vitro).
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